Art A-Z: N – Nesterov Mikhail

Mikhail Vasilievich Nesterov (Ufa, 1862 – Moscow, 1942) – painter.

Studied at the Moscow School of Painting, Sculpture and Architecture and at the Academy of Arts in Saint-Petersburg.

Since 1896 – member of  the Society for Travelling Art Exhibitions (Peredvizhniki). 

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Girls on the river bank

In 1890 – 1895, Nesterov together with V.Vasnetsov painted Vladimir Cathedral in Kiev. In 1894 – 1895, he worked on sketches of mosaics for the Church of the Savior on Blood in Saint-Petersburg.

The first half of Nesterov’s career was marked by interest for religion. He painted The Hermit (1886) after death of his wife, The Vision to the Youth Bartholomew (1889-1890) (see up), made painting for Marfo-Mariinskiy convent (1908-1911). He was inspired by ancient Russian religions painting, as well as contemporary religious writers and philosophers, including N.Leskov and L.Tolstoi.

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Silence, 1903

Since mid-1920s, Nestetov paints portraits of his contemporaries – painters, scientists, etc.

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Portrait of sculptor Vera Mukhina, 1940

 

Tip

Visit the Tretyakov Gallery to see Nesterov’s famous works.

 

Art A-Z: M – Melnikov Konstantin

Konstantin Stepanovich Melnikov (1890, Moscow – 1974, Moscow) – architect.

In 1914, Melnikov graduated from the Faculty of Painting of the Moscow School of Painting, Sculpture and Architecture, in 1917 – from the Faculty of Architecture of the same establishment.

Since 1920 – professor of Vkhutemas (Higher Art and Technical Studios).

In 1921-1924 he implemented a number of projects that brought him fame, including the pavilion Makhorka for All-Russian Agriculture Exhibition (1923), sarcophagus for Lenin’s Mausoleum, Novo-Sukharevskiy market. In these projects he used new methods – “shift” of forms, dynamics of diagonal and others.

In 1925, Melnikov designed Soviet pavilion for Paris Exhibition of Decorative Arts, which was highly appreciated by the European public. During his stay in Paris, he designed two complexes of garages.

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Club Burevestnik

In the second half of 1920s he actively participation in competitions and won several of them, which allowed him to design clubs, public establishments, blocks of flats, etc.

Since the beginning of 1930s – decline of architectural career because of political circumstances, he was accused of formalism like many other Soviet architects of 1920s. Fortunately, he continued his career in education.

Famous works:

  • Club named after Rusakov (see up) (1927-1929)
  • Club Kauchuk (1927-1929)
  • Club Burevestnik (1927-1929)
  • Private experimental house

 

Tip

Read more about Melnikov and his family here –

Inside Melnikov’s Experimental House

Art A-Z: L – Lubok

Lubok – traditional Russian engraved or painted images made by craftsmen and distributed among people.

Traits – image on a list is combined with text, simple composition, bright colours, anonymity.

Lubok emerged in the XVII century and gained momentum in the first half of the XIX century and declined by the beginning of the XX century.

At the beginning lubok depicted religious stories, it was popular among the Old Believers, especially in the North of Russia, Povolzhie and near Moscow.

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Death of a just man and  of a sinner

In the XIX century, lubok depicted people’s heroes, songs, satire, proverbs. It was sold at markets and fairs.

Lubok was engraved by different techniques – on wooden or copper plates, later –  on lithographic limestone.

пьян

Art A-Z: K – Kandinsky Vasily

Vasily Vasilievich Kandinsky (1866, Moscow – 1944, Neuilly-sur-Seine) – painter, theorist of art, one of founders of abstract art.

Born to a family of a merchant, he had Russian, German and Buryat (one of Russia’s people) origins. He equally spoke Russian and German since childhood.

Kandinsky graduated from the Faculty of Law of the Moscow State University and planned to become a professor, but suddenly he dropped academic career and went to Munich to learn painting.

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Composition VI

In 1900s, Kandinsky’s style was influenced by impressionism and modern. He painted landscapes and views of Munich and other places that he visited, as well as historical heroes and fairy tales.

In 1906-1908, Kandinsky travelled around Europe, he spent a year in Paris, six months – in Berlin. He participated in multiple exhibitions.

In 1908-1910, he started to experiment with composition and colour in landscapes of Murnau, near Munich.

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Composition VIII

In 1911, the first abstract Painting with a circle was created, and in 1913 – two works that marked Munich period – Composition VI and Composition VII (see up). However, a lot of experts suppose that Kandinsky’s aquarelle of 1910 was the first abstract picture ever created.

In 1915-1921 – due to the First World War he returned to Moscow, where he worked as professor.

Since 1921 – professor of Bauhaus (Germany).

1933-1944 – Paris period. In Paris Kandinsky became friend of P. Mondrian, H. Miro and other young painters, who considered him one the brightest visionary of the XX century.

Author of several books about art, including About the Spiritual in Art and Point and Line to Plane, which embodied Kandinsky ideas about art and became indispensable for many painters and connoisseurs of art.

Interesting Fact

In one of his books Kandinsky states that he was inspired by Monet’s Hayrick, painting that he saw at the impressionism exhibition in Moscow in 1895.

Tip

If you want to see Composition VII – visit the Tretyakov Gallery, for Composition VI – go the State Hermitage in Saint-Petersburg. However, Kandinsky’s paintings are a part of many museums’ and private collections around the globe.

Art A-Z: I – Ivanov Aleksandr

Aleksandr Andreevich Ivanov (1806, Saint-Petersburg – 1858, Saint-Petersburg) – painter.

Born to a family of a painter, he studied at the Academy of Art. In 1830, he received scholarship to travel to Italy.

In 1833, in Italy,  he started to make studies for The Appearance of Christ before the People, which became the work of his life (see up).

As Ivanov described the painting him-self, it was about “crossroad of physical and spiritual powers”.

Ivanov was the first in history of Russian art, who used sketches made en plein air for landscape backgrounds. At the same time his style was strictly classical and academic and did not resemble Impressionists, who later also worked en plein air.

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Walking on water, study, 1850s

In 1857, Ivanov exposed The Appearance in his workshop in Rome. Inspired by its success in Europe, he brought the painting to Saint-Petersburg, where it was displayed at the Winter Palace (residence of the emperor), and later at the Academy of Art.

Russian public, however, was indifferent and even hostile towards The Appearance. The painter, who had poor health, was depressed by the public’s reaction, and 1858, he caught cholera and died.

Tip

Visit the Tretyakov Gallery to learn more about The Appearance, its history, and studies for it.

Art A-Z: G – Grabar Igor

Igor Emmanuilovich Grabar (1871,  Budapest, – 1960, Moscow) – painter, historian of art.

In 1893, Grabar graduated from the Faculty of Law of the University of Saint-Petersburg. In 1894 – 1896 – studied at the Academy of Art, he attended Repin’s classes, then in 1896-1989 he continued his studies in Munich.

In 1901, he became a member of Mir Iskusstva (World of Art) fellowship.

Made multiple trips to Europe, in 1914 he visited Egypt, in 1924 – the USA.

лазурь
February azure, 1904

His early works were widely influenced by impressionism, in his landscapes he used the method of decompositions of colour, especially in winter scenes.  Later, however, his style transformed into more academic.

Grabar made huge work to preserve Russian art. He wrote books about painters I.Repin, V.Serov, I.levitan. In 1909-1916, under his reduction the first History of Russian Art was published.

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Chrisantemums, 1905

In 1913-1925 – head of the Tretyakov Gallery.

In 1918, he became head of Central Restauration Workshops, which later were named after him (In June 2018, this organisation celebrated 100 anniversary).

Author of History of Russian Art in several volumes (1953-1869).

Art A-Z: F – Fedotov Pavel

Pavel Andreevich Fedotov (1815, Moscow – 1852, Saint-Petersburg) – painter.

Made a military career. In 1834 – 1844, during military service in Saint-Petersburg he visited classes at the Academy of Arts and was making aquarelle and pencil sketches of mates and friends. In 1844, Fedotov completely dedicated him-self to art.

In 1849, three Fedotov’s works, that were exposed at the Academy of Art’s exhibition, received positive reviews (Including Matchmaking of the Major – see up).

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Nobleman’s Breakfast, 1850

Fedotov’s paintings are full of drama, interesting plots and conflicts. His later works, however, are more pessimistic and more static.

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Players, 1851-1852

Tip

If you want to see Fedotov’s works, visit the State Tretyakov Gallery in Moscow and the State Russian Museum in Saint-Petersburg.

Art A-Z: E – Eropkin Petr

Petr Mikhaylovich Eropkin (1689, Moscow – 1740, Saint-Petersburg) – architect.

Born to a family of noble but poor family. From 1716 to 1724 studied architecture in Italy.

Since 1725 participated in construction of Petergof. Since 1735 took part in previously suspended construction of Aleksandr Nevskiy Lavra. In the 30th years of the XVIII century made a number of houses for Russian noblemen.

Eropkin was the author of the first perspective plan of Saint-Petersburg.

In 1740, Russian empress Anna Ioanovna decided to organise wedding for her buffoons, and Eropken designed Ice House on Neva river in Saint-Petersburg, where the ceremony took place (see the picture up).

Eropkin was one of the first theorists of architecture in Russia and was considered one the most educated persons of his time. He translated several parts of A.Palladio’s famous book “About architecture” into Russian.

Was accused of conspiracy and executed.

Interesting Fact

In Moscow you can find Eropkinskiy lane, which was named after Petr Eropkin’s relative, Petr Dmitrievich Eropkin, Russian statesman.

 

Art A-Z: D – Deineka Aleksandr

Aleksandr Aleksandrovich Deineka (1899, Kursk – 1969, Moscow) – painter, illustrator, sculptor.

After studies at Vkhutemas (Art and technical school), he started his career as illustrator at several journals and author of posters. At the same time he made first steps in panel painting, which was influenced by his experience as illustrator.

His favourite subjects were industrialisation, work and leisure of Soviet people, sport.

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Defense of Petrograd, 1927

Monumental forms, expression, dynamics, clarity and brightness of colours are the typical traits of Deineka’s style.

baseball
Baseball, 1935

Famous works:

  • Panels for Soviet Pavilion at World Exhibition in Paris, 1937
  • 35 mosaics for Mayakovskaya station, 1938

Tip

Learn more about Mayakovskaya station and A.Deineka in the course of our Metro Tour.

Art A-Z: C – Chechulin Dmitry

Dmitry Nikolaevich Chechulin (1901, Shostka – 1981, Moscow) – architect.

Born to a family of workers, he widely supported Revolution of 1917. At the beginning of career worked as decorator at theatre and circus, painted portraits and landscapes, made sculptors.

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White House, 1970

After the Great Patriotic War he became senior architect of Moscow (1945 – 1949) and seriously influenced the look of the city. He supported construction of skyscrapers in Moscow (7 sisters), and was one of the authors of famous building on Kotelnicheskaya embankment (1948 – 1953).

Комсомольская_(Красная)
Station Komsomolskaya radial (1935)

Chechulin made several projects for Moscow’s Metro and VDNKh (Exhibition of achievements of National Economy). Among the most interesting projects:

  • Metro station Komsomolskaya – radial (1935)
  • Reconstruction of Chaykovskiy Concert Hall (1940)
  • Hotel “Rossiya” (1967 – 1970) (destroyed)
  • Building of government, “White House” (1970)

Awards:

  • People’s architect of the USSR (1971)
  • Hero of socialistic labour (1976)
  • State award of the USSR (1941, 1949, 1953)

Author of a book “Life and architecture”.

Tip

Learn more about Dmitry Chechulin in the course of our Metro Tour.